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Applied Swine Nutrition Basics.
Part 3. Application. Economics of Swine Production & Pig Profit Planner.

Introduction of the Pig Profit Planner.

Introduction: It is one thing to formulate rations that meet the nutrient requirements of the animal. It is quite another task to be able to answer two important economic questions whose answers change as ingredient costs and the market price of pork change. I got tired of not being able to answer important economic questions asked by serious hog producers so I created the Pig Profit Planner (PPP). The PPP is a book of spreadsheets I created in Microsoft Excel that can be used to answer two questions all hog raisers should ask before they start feeding market hogs:

(1) How much profit or loss will be realized from feeding market hogs under today's economic conditions?

(2) What feed combinations (protein and grain sources) will be the most profitable?

In other words, the Pig Profit Planner is (1) a budgeting tool and (2) helps the hog raiser make intelligent choices of what to feed? This is the third part of a three part series I have written specifically for swine producers in Western Ukraine.

Part 1 (21 pages) of this manuscript addresses the theory of adjusting ration protein levels based on the (1) genetic potential of the pig to grow muscle, (2) ambient temperature and (3) ration density. Part 2 (17 pages) gives formulas for rations formulated for specific temperatures using various feedstuffs such as soybean meal, sunflower meal with hulls or partial hulls, canola meal, meat & bone meal, wheat, corn, etc. available in Ukraine.

I will not describe the operation of the PPP book of spreadsheets but will focus on (1) what economic predictions the PPP provides us using today's economics and (2) what current information I need from you so that I can keep the PPP spreadsheets current so as to be able to supply you with accurate economic numbers that improve your ability to make correct management decisions that will maximize your profit in today's economy.

The successful operation of the Pig Profit Planner spreadsheets depends on the accurate estimation of the performance of hogs of a specific weight fed specific rations formulated using specific ingredients of a specific cost and fed under specific environmental conditions. I need to know the cost of ingredients in order to predict ration costs and the cost of gain. There are separate books of spreadsheets that I created for rapid pricing of existing formulas. The spreadsheet pricing books contain the formulas used in this manuscript. By entering new ingredient prices there is an immediate upgrading to the current prices which then can be entered in the Pig Profit Planner.

I used a computer model that calculates the Metabolizable Energy (ME) intake of the pig, which is based on the fortunate discovery that pigs of the same body weight living in a similar environment (similar ambient temperature and floor space) voluntarily consume the same number of calories per day. By comparing the metabolizable energy level of the specific feed formulated to feed this pig with the pig's estimated ME intake, feed intake can be estimated, the units of feed needed per unit of gain calculated and the cost of gain per pig and per kilogram determined as well as data per day and return on investment.

All performance data assume that the hog has been wormed so that we're feeding only the pig and not its parasites. All pigs should be wormed at weaning and breeding stock wormed twice a year with a wormer such as Ivomec.

Hog performance will change if you change the genetic potential of the pig but given the same pig raised in the same environment (temperature & floor space), performance data of the pig will remain similar so we need to update only the economic data in the PPP to answer the questions of (1) profitability and to learn (2) what feed combinations we should feed. The Pig Profit Planner template needs to be updated if the rate of gain of fat-free lean changes because the genetic potential of the pig to grow muscle has changed.

In addition to the above data I need to know what you paid for the starter pig and what market price you will receive when you sell the market hog. From these data we can use the PPP to predict income over feed costs. To determine net profit we need to estimate non-feed costs. There is a spreadsheet in the book of spreadsheets for estimating non-feed costs that we'll explain later.

To make the Pig Profit Planner work, hog performance is estimated for specific rations using techniques described in Part 1 of this manuscript where the theory of formulating rations to account for temperature and ration energy density was discussed. Please read Part 1 to understand what we're doing with the Pig Profit Planner.

The first step in estimating hog performance is to predict the average daily increase in grams of fat free tissue (muscle) and the deposition of fat tissue so that we can estimate average daily gain.

The Pig Profit Planner is a book of spreadsheets made up of spreadsheets for each ration combination evaluated in which the performance of pigs of various ages fed the specific ration is calculated. Pig performance of pigs of various sizes fed each feed combination is totaled for the entire fattening period. When you study the following tables you will see what data the PPP generates and all of the above will be easier to understand.

Starter rations for all feed combinations studied were the same or similar and used predominately soybean meal as the protein source. Therefore the performance and profitability data for pigs fed the starter rations are pretty similar for all starter rations.

The following table (20 C) was assembled from data predicted for pigs living in 20 C ambient temperature with adequate floor space fed eight different rations.

The abbreviations for feed ingredients include: SBM = soybean meal. SFMH/2 = sunflower meal with partial hulls. SFMH = sunflower meal with hulls. Canola = canola meal. M&B = meat & bone meal. WVMX = wheat supplemented with vitamins and minerals but with no added protein. WVML = wheat supplemented with vitamins and minerals plus lysine added to the level where the next limiting amino acid after lysine (threonine) becomes limiting and thus there is no advantage to add more lysine.

Ration costs are for actual rations formulated by me using the feedstuffs shown with the following costs in grivnia per kg of ingredient:

Barley @ 0.55, Corn @ 0.70, Oats @ 0.50, Wheat @ 0.55, Wheat Bran @ 0.40, Canola Meal @ 1.00, Soybean Meal, expeller @ 1.65, Sunflower Meal with Hulls @ 0.60, Sunflower Meal with partial hulls @ 0.75, Meat & Bone Meal @ 1.00, Liprot (source of lysine) @ 2.55,

Plus the cost of vitamins & minerals purchased from Vasyl Maxim and our three agricultural cooperatives in Rivne, Sambir and Zhydachiv, who are the exclusive sources of current vitamins and mineral mixes I formulated for dairy, swine and poultry rations,

Plus the cost of processing the feed. These costs were the same for all rations so while the absolute costs may change when the method of feed manufacturing is changed, the relative ranking of the feed combinations should not change.

Feed costs and budget projections of the PPP will change when feed ingredients and/or their price changes. The prices used need to be updated as market conditions change.

The rations for all starter pigs used soybean meal predominately. Introduce the starter ration as a creep to baby pigs. Do not wean pigs and introduce the starter ration without an adjustment period of at least a week. At weaning feeding only ground oats and barley for a few days as you re-introduce the starter feed may reduce digestive problems associated with weaning

Starter rations were designed to be fed up to 20 kg body weight. Grower rations are to be fed from 20 to 50 kg BW. Finisher #1 from 50 to 80 kg BW and finisher #2 from 80 kg body weight until the pig goes to market (120 kg).

More Abbreviations: FFL = Fat Free Lean (muscle). ADFI = Average Daily Feed Intake. ADG = Average Daily Gain. ROI/Pig = Return on Investment per pig. ROI/Year = Return on Investment per Year, which is the return on investment per pig divided by the days on feed times 365 day to convert to a yearly basis. BW = Body Weight.

20 C Table: Pig Profit Planner for Pigs Fed From 15 to 120 Kg BW in 20 C Ambient Temperature with Adequate Floor Space

Feed Combination ID Number that remains the same through this paper.
Combination123456WVMXWVML
Protein SourceSBMSBMSFMH/2SFMHCanolaM&BNoneLysine
Grain SourceCornWheatWheatWheatWheatWheatWheatWheat
FFL/Day, g325325325310325325Adjusted to Max
Cost of Feed. All monetary values given in Grivnia. Weights given in Grams.
Starter1.2541.0841.0471.0581.0841.0841.0841.084
Grower1.1840.9930.8390.7820.9430.8790.6940.749
Finisher #11.0990.8600.7910.7630.8240.7420.6920.739
Finisher #21.0380.7900.7620.7450.7660.7400.6860.727
Cost Data to Raise Pig - Will Change as Market Prices Change
Cost of Pig150150150150150150150150
Feed Costs270230222224226212253235
Per Kg Gain2.572.192.122.132.162.022.412.24
Non-Feed Costs9898981019898136118
% of Total1921212121212523
Invested/Pig519478471475475461539503
Pig Performance Data - Will Not Change unless the Ration or Genetic Potential Change
Weight Gain105105105105105105105105
Feed Intake246264278291270269361315
Feed/Gain2.342.522.652.772.572.573.443.00
ADFI1,9902,1382249230621882,1812,1102,132
ADG850850850833850850614712
Days on Feed124124124126124124171148
% FFL Gain6363636163633851
% Fat Gain3737373937376249
Income Data for Pig When Marketed - Will Change with Market Price Changes
Sale price/kg6.006.006.006.006.006.006.006.00
Market Wt.120120120120120120120120
Income720720720720720720720720
Income Over Feed Costs
Per Pig300340348346344358317335
Per kg Gain2.853.243.313.293.273.413.023.19
Per Day2.432.752.812.742.782.901.852.27
Net Profit (Net Profit = Income Over Feed Costs Less Non-Feed Costs)
Per Pig201242249245245259181217
Per kg Gain1.922.302.372.342.332.471.722.07
Per Day1.631.952.021.951.982.101.061.47
Return On Investment per Pig & per Year & Relative to Pigs Fed SBM & Wheat
ROI/Pig39%50%53%52%52%56%33%43%
SBM+Wht = 100771001051021021126686
ROI/Year115%149%156%150%152%166%71%107%
SBM+Wht = 100771001051001021124872

Explanations of Non-Feed Costs.

Non-Feed Cost (NFC) is calculated on a separate spreadsheet in the PPP book of spreadsheets and is assumed to be the same for all pigs on a daily basis.

Non-feed costs were determined by compiling the monthly costs for:

(1) labor for raising pigs, (2) rent of the hog facility, (3) electricity, (4) water, (5) repairs & maintenance, (6) veterinary expenses, (7) medicines including wormers like Ivomec, (8) security costs, (9) depreciation of equipment, (10) financing - cost of money, (11) taxes on buildings & equipment, (12) transportation costs to feed and market (13) death loss, (14) office rent, (15) telephones, computers, e-mail, (16) accounting, (17) vehicle costs for non-hog production use, (18) management and (19) Government Encouragement Transfers - "G.E.T." There are several lines open for use if you have other costs or you can put in your own figure per pig per month or per pig per day.

Determining the Non-Feed Costs Per Pig per Day

The monthly NFC per pig is calculated automatically by the PPP by dividing the total monthly costs for the swine operation by the number of pigs on feed. The spreadsheet divides the monthly cost per pig by 30.5 to determine the non-feed cost per day per pig.

The cost per day per pig of non-feed costs is multiplied by the number of days the pig is on feed to find the total non-feed costs to raise a pig from 15 to 120 kg.

The lower the average daily gain the longer the pig will be on feed and the higher the non-feed costs will be for the life of the pig. Days on feed is influenced by the adequacy of the diet, particularly protein. Time may not mean much to a hog but it does mean a lot to you as time is money in a market economy. The number of pigs that you can fatten per year in a facility is important in determining your profitability from the facility per year.

Conclusions from Studying Table 20 C

It will take some time but you can study the above table and draw your own conclusions. Here are some of my conclusions.

The first obvious conclusion is that it is very profitable to raise pigs in Western Ukraine under current market conditions. The actual numbers you obtain on your hog farm may vary from these data due to many reasons including the genetic potential of your pigs, adequacy of the diet, availability of water, management practices, different costs and sale price than assumed, etc. Now that we've determined that we should make money feeding pigs today (June 2002) we need to answer the question of what ration combinations will make the hog feeder the most money. This assumes that you can go on the market and buy what you want. You may own specific feeds that you choose to feed.

While corn and soybean meal rations are standard in the USA and support good pig performance, the current cost of corn and soybean meal in Western Ukraine makes this an uneconomical choice of ration ingredients for pigs fed in Western Ukraine. One reason is that protein is expensive in Ukraine and since corn is lower in protein than wheat, it takes more protein to balance a corn ration for protein and this runs up the cost. Under the conditions studied, soybean & corn (and as we'll see, it is really corn) aren't your best ration choice. Trying to use corn and the other proteins studied would be an even poorer choice as the other protein sources are lower in protein than soybean meal and it would take too much of them to balance the rations where corn (low protein) is the grain used.

At 20 C ambient temperature, sunflower meal with partial hulls (SFMH/2), which is available for purchase in Western Ukraine, when combined with wheat, is predicted to make the producer as much or more profit as rations formulated with soybean meal and wheat for pigs over 20 kilograms of body weight. Sunflower meal with no hulls removed is a poorer economic choice than SFM with partial hulls, partly because it will take the hog longer to get to market so there is a larger non-feed cost burden and a lower return per year on investment. Notice that I predicted that hogs fed with sunflower meal and hulls would not grow muscle as fast (310 grams per day average vs. 325 grams) as predicted for hogs fed rations supplemented with other protein sources. This might be unfair in this comparison of protein sources but because of the poor quality protein (low lysine level) and high fiber level of sunflower meal with hulls and the detrimental effect that this may have on ration digestibility I thought this modest handicap for sunflower meal with hulls was justified in order to get a true and accurate comparative evaluation.

The high fiber level of sunflower meal with hulls may depress ration digestibility more than predicted by typical ration calculations of combining the ingredients as higher fiber levels may decrease the digestibility of the rest of the ration ingredients. This could result in overestimating the value of sunflower meal with hulls and partial hulls.

The above economic comparisons take into account that the protein levels are adjusted to balance the metabolic energy level of the ration rather than formulating to the same percent of protein/kg of feed without consideration of the energy level of the ration or genetic potential of the pig.

Canola meal is a viable option for pig rations at the prices used. The prices used are a big guess since we'll need to wait until after harvest to get a current price. Canola (double "0" rape) grows well in Western Ukraine but requires special equipment to seed, harvest, dry and process. There is market resistance to canola meal for fear it actually may be rape meal in disguise and therefore high in glucosinolates, so careful identification and maintenance of identity to assure that you're buying true canola meal is necessary. Canola seed will revert to rape after several generations. True canola can be purchased from a research university in Ivano Frankivsk. For more information on feeding canola meal please see my article on Feeding Recommendations for Canola Meal for Cattle, Dairy, Swine and Poultry. We can supply you a copy in Ukrainian or you can visit the web and using Google as your search engine, type in "Roy Chapin, Ukraine, Canola Meal" and you should find the article. There are other articles I wrote there. Type in "Roy Chapin, Ukraine, Swine" for some articles I wrote on swine several years ago. Type in "Roy Chapin, Ukraine, Liquid Feed" to find information on liquid feed for cattle.

Meat & Bone Meal may be a good choice to supply some of the protein in hog rations but it is of variable quality so you'll want an accurate analysis of what you're buying. Send it to me and I'll formulate a ration. Because of its high content of bone it can't be used as the sole source of supplemental protein in rations requiring a lot of protein.

I really had fun with the following comparisons! When I see rations fed without added protein I have questioned the economics of feeding wheat (1) with or (2) without added lysine and with no other protein source. (Be sure to add vitamins and minerals to all rations. It is really bad economic news not to feed them.) Look at combination WVMX (wheat, vitamins, minerals, no lysine) to see what the PPP predicts and compare it to the predicted results when lysine is added (WVML) up to the level where threonine becomes the next limiting amino acid so adding additional lysine won't help.

Be sure to include vitamins and minerals in all diets as they are needed for (1) structure and (2) metabolic co-factors. Feeding pigs without vitamins and minerals is like driving a car without (1) wheels and without (2) oil and grease. The energy level of the ration can be compared to the octane level of fuel. Protein is needed to grow muscle.

To discuss economic return we need to look at some income measurements. When pigs didn't receive any added protein and not even added lysine, they produced depressing economic results. Interestingly, feeding wheat plus lysine to pigs over 20 kg of body weight ranked well when compared with rations with other proteins added when you looked at the income over feed cost per pig and per kg of gain but it fell behind when compared on a per day income over feed costs basis since they took longer to get to market. It wasn't competitive in relation to other protein options when evaluated on a return on investment per year. Pigs fed inadequate protein produce carcasses higher in fat and lower in protein, which may be differentiated against in the market place.

Please notice some other parameters:

Look at the average daily feed intake (ADFI) for pigs on all ration combinations and you'll find them pretty similar. The energy intake per pig of the same weight and fed in the same environment is similar irregardless of the ration fed with the small differences predicted for ADFI due to differences in the energy density of the various rations. When you look at the average daily gain (ADG) of pigs on all ration choices, it is pretty similar until you get to wheat without protein (WVMX) and wheat with lysine (WVML). It of course took pigs on these last two rations longer to reach market weight since their ADG was lower.

So what's the deal? Pigs on all rations ate similar amounts of energy (adjusted feed intake to caloric density) so what did pigs fed only wheat or wheat and lysine do with the energy if they didn't gain as much weight as pigs on other rations. You don't have to look far to find out. Compare the percent of weight gain that is muscle and the percentage that is fat! The slower gaining pigs used their energy to deposit fat rather than grow muscle because they didn't have enough protein (particularly lysine) for muscle growth.

Pigs fed only wheat (plus vitamins and minerals) produced a carcass where the gain was only 38% muscle and a whopping 62% fat. When lysine was added, the muscle percentage of gain improved to 51% with 49% fat. Compare this to the other rations with adequate protein where the gain from muscle was 63% and from fat only 37%. If the market place discounted a pig that was mostly fat and little muscle, pigs fed wheat, even with lysine added, would receive a lower sale price and it would be even more uneconomical to feed them than shown. See what happens to all economic parameters if the pigs on only wheat whose weight gain was 62% fat were docked one grivnia/kg and the ones on only wheat and lysine whose weight gain was 49% fat were docked 0.50 grivnia/kg. Buying on carcass quality (high muscle with low fat) would really discriminate against swine diets that were not supplemented with adequate protein as the carcasses would be butter balls instead of well muscled.

In the study presented all pigs sold at the same price, which isn't realistic. Who would pay as much for a hog that was mostly fat as one that was mostly lean? (Don't answer! But the market should reward muscle with a higher price and reduce the market price for fat.) If you produce a superior carcass you should get a premium from the slaughter plant. You will have to demand it but I'm sure that they make more money when the pig is lean rather than when it is high in fat so part of your profit strategy should be to push for a premium price for the premium carcass you will produce on these feeds.

Another place where you lose if you feed only wheat, even with lysine, but without adequate protein is that it takes so long to get the pig to market. In our projections pigs fed properly gained 105 kg in 124 days while pigs fed only wheat (with vitamins and minerals added) took 171 days. Adding lysine shortens the time on feed to 148 days; an improvement but this is still not good enough. When non-feed costs are applied (remember they are on a daily basis so if it takes more days to get a pig to market, the non-feed costs increase per pig) the net income per pig and per kg of gain falls rapidly, although adding lysine definitely helps. The economic benefit of supplementing with protein is even more apparent if you look at the profit per day from your facility, which is a realistic way to evaluate profitability. You market fewer pigs per year as the days on feed per pig get longer.

An even more realistic way to compare the economics of various rations is to think like a banker and look at the return on investment per year. We're really in the business of managing capital (and in this example we're investing it in feeding market hogs) so ROI per year is the best way to evaluate economic results as we make comparisons to choose the best ration combinations. In comparison to pigs fed soybean meal and wheat, the yearly return on investment from pigs fed only wheat (plus vitamins and minerals or the numbers would be even worse) fell to 48%. When lysine was added to wheat there was some increase but this combination was only 72% as effective as feeding soybean meal and wheat when ROI per year was measured. Proof again that feeding good feed pays.

Time does matter to the hog raiser. As pigs take longer to get to market, non-feed costs increase. The pig may be as happy as a clam at high tide but your banker isn't and you shouldn't be either. Use good management! Choose to feed rations that maximize your yearly return on investment. The Pig Profit Planner will help you make the right choice.

These data show that at 20 C ambient temperature it pays to feed supplemental protein rather than feeding only wheat or only wheat plus lysine. Sunflower meal with partial hulls will make you as much money or more by all parameters of measurement as if you feed soybean meal and wheat while sunflower meal with hulls is a poorer economic choice than sunflower meal with partial hulls but about equal to feeding corn and soybean meal. I know a lot of sunflower meal with hulls is used here, but please re-evaluate your feeding program now that you've seen these data and be a more informed buyer of protein supplements. Buy partially dehulled sunflower meal if possible.

Please study the table to draw your own conclusions. I'll be interested in how close these predictions come to what you actually see in your hog operation.

If you will supply me with purchase and sales data for your farm I'll enter these numbers for more accurate budgeting. Please notice that hog performance doesn't change unless the ration formula or genetic potential change but economic data change when market conditions change. You can approximate the effect these changes will have on your profitability yourself by using these tables, putting in the new numbers and doing the math manually.

The above data are for pigs fed in 20 C ambient temperatures. Next we'll look at the numbers when the ambient temperature is lower or higher than 20 C for (1) soybean meal & wheat, (2) sunflower meal with partial hulls & wheat, (3) sunflower meal with hulls fed with wheat, (4) wheat fed alone (plus vitamins and minerals) or (5) wheat plus vitamins and minerals with added lysine.

I assumed a pig under 20 kg would be protected from cold weather so used a starter feed formulated for 20 C in all temperature comparison. I didn't look at corn & soybean meal, canola meal or meat and bone meal fed in ambient temperatures other than 20 C.

You may be interested in how various parameters change as the pig increases in weight and the effect of being raised in various ambient temperatures. Rather than show you another table like Table 20 C, that would have you flipping pages trying to make comparisons, I'm going to do it for you with lots of summary tables for 5 C, 10 C, 15 C, 20 C and 25 C ambient temperatures. I created another book of spreadsheets that are linked to each book of spreadsheets that was used to predict hog performance in the five different temperatures in order to compile these summary sheets.

Presentation of the following tables follows a patter. First I will give the absolute value and then the relative values in (1) comparison to rations composed of soybean meal and wheat and (2) relative to either 20 C or 25 C ambient temperature. I'll make comments as we present the tables. Compiling and recording this information has taken a lot of work. You'll get tired of looking at so many figures. Please view this as an encyclopedia of information that you can refer to as you feel the need. Of particular importance are the final tables that show profitability including return on investment per pig and per year. Use this manuscript to understand concepts and as a reference source for various data.

Remember, all these data shown in Part 3 reflect the predicted performance of pigs fed the rations shown in Part 2 of this paper and are based on the theory of Part 1.

The principles were presented in Part 1. The theory of Part 1 was applied to all rations formulated so predicted performance conforms to theory. In Part 1 we used hypothetical rations that all contained 3000 Kcal of metabolizable energy per kg. The actual rations shown in Part 2 and used in Part 3 to predict performance and outcome are actual field rations and thus the energy density varies with the choice of ingredients. This variation affects feed intake, feed efficiency, profitability etc. as the following tables will show.

Here we go with more tables and figures than you ever wanted to see. We will focus on rations made from (1) soybean meal and wheat - SBM, (2) sunflower meal with partial hulls and wheat - SFMH/2, (3) sunflower meal with hulls and wheat - SFMH, (4) wheat with only vitamins and minerals added - WVMX and (5) wheat with added vitamins, minerals and lysine - WVML. Since all rations contain wheat in the column headings I'll show only the protein source used.

Table 1-1: Percent Protein in Swine Feeds Fed in
5 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW20.0220.0220.0720.0720.07
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW16.4415.8315.0512.6512.99
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg13.8813.6413.2212.6912.98
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt12.5712.5712.5312.7312.98
Ave.Grower +Finishers14.314.0113.6012.6312.98

Table 1-2: Percent Protein in Swine Feeds Fed in
10 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW20.0220.0220.0720.0720.07
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW17.0716.5015.5712.6512.99
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg14.4614.2713.6212.6912.98
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt12.9412.8212.6012.7312.98
Ave.Grower +Finishers14.8214.5313.9312.6912.98

Table 1-3: Percent Protein in Swine Feeds Fed in
15 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW20.0220.0220.0720.0720.07
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW17.9317.0816.0312.6512.99
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg15.1814.8214.6312.6912.98
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt13.4513.3813.0312.7312.98
Ave.Grower +Finishers15.5215.0914.4112.6912.98

Table 1-4: Percent Protein in Swine Feeds Fed in
20 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW20.0220.0320.0720.0720.07
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW19.0317.8716.6812.6512.99
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg15.9215.4014.6212.6912.98
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt14.1913.9713.5312.7312.98
Ave.Grower +Finishers16.3815.7514.9412.6912.98

Table 1-5: Percent Protein in Swine Feeds Fed in
25 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW20.0720.1220.0020.0720.07
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW20.1418.6117.3612.6512.99
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg16.8616.0315.3712.6912.98
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt14.9314.6314.0212.7312.98
Ave.Grower +Finishers17.3116.4215.5812.6912.98

Table 1-6: Relative Average Percent Protein in Swine Feeds Compared to Soybean Meal & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.10098958991
10 C Ambient Temp.10098948688
15 C Ambient Temp.10097938284
20 C Ambient Temp.10096917779
25 C Ambient Temp.10095907375

Table 1-7: Relative Average Percent Protein in Swine Feeds Compared to Different Ambient Temperatures. 25 C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.838587100100
10 C Ambient Temp.868889100100
15 C Ambient Temp.909292100100
20 C Ambient Temp.959696100100
25 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100

Comments: The preceding group of tables (Table 1) gives the absolute percentage level of protein needed in rations to balance the energy in rations using the feedstuffs shown to support the muscle growth shown for a given weight of pig. Note that (1) percent protein decreases when you use protein sources that supply lower energy and (2) the percent protein needed in the feed decreases as ambient temperature declines since the pig eats more feed to get energy to maintain body temperature. When dietary protein is properly balanced to energy the intake of protein per day is adequate to support muscle growth.

It is a mistake to formulate swine rations to a specific percentage of protein without considering the energy level of the ration. It takes a special computer program to determine the percent protein and percent lysine levels needed for a (1) given weight of pig (2) growing a specific amount of muscle, (3) eating a ration of a given amount of metabolizable energy living in an environment of a (4) given ambient temperature with a (5) specific amount of floor space per pig. The ration can be (6) gender specific also as growing gilts, barrows and boars all have different requirements.

The prediction of nutrient requirements is a trial and error task done as you formulate the ration as you need to approximate the metabolizable energy of the diet using specific ingredients and then run the nutrient prediction program to see how much protein and lysine is needed to balance the energy of the ration. When a low energy protein source such as sunflower meal with hulls is used, adding more of it will lower the energy density of the ration, which lowers the amount of protein and lysine needed so you will need to run the nutrient prediction program again to determine new nutrient requirements. All this takes a lot more work than formulating the ration based on percentages per kilogram of diet but it assures that the nutrient balance in relation to energy will be adequate but not excessive. Understanding this concept is the main point of this entire manuscript.

With most of the presentation to follow, absolute values are given first followed by a relative ranking (1) against soybean meal and wheat and (2) against temperature, usually 25 C but sometimes 20 C if 20 C seems to be the turning point for a response. You may use the absolute values to formulate rations. The relative values point out relationships that will improve your understanding of what needs to be done. This should help you improve your management skills and earn a greater profit from your efforts.

Table 2-1: Percent Lysine in Swine Feeds Fed in
5 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW1.161.161.161.161.16
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW0.830.80.740.370.61
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg0.650.640.610.370.58
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt0.560.550.530.370.55
Ave.Grower +Finishers0.680.660.630.370.58

Table 2-2: Percent Lysine in Swine Feeds Fed in
10 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW1.151.161.161.161.16
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW0.880.840.770.370.61
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg0.700.690.650.370.58
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt0.580.580.580.370.55
Ave.Grower +Finishers0.720.700.670.370.58

Table 2-3: Percent Lysine in Swine Feeds Fed in
15 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW1.151.161.161.161.16
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW0.950.890.810.370.61
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg0.750.720.680.370.58
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt0.620.620.600.370.55
Ave.Grower +Finishers0.770.740.700.370.58

Table 2-4: Percent Lysine in Swine Feeds Fed in
20 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW1.151.161.161.161.16
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW1.030.940.850.370.61
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg0.810.760.720.370.58
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt0.670.670.640.370.55
Ave.Grower +Finishers0.840.790.740.370.58

Table 2-5: Percent Lysine in Swine Feeds Fed in
25 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW1.161.161.161.161.16
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW1.120.990.900.370.61
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg0.870.810.760.370.58
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt0.740.700.680.370.55
Ave.Grower +Finishers0.910.830.780.370.58

Table 2-6: Relative Average Percent Lysine in Swine Feeds Compared to Soybean Meal & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.10098925485
10 C Ambient Temp.10098935181
15 C Ambient Temp.10096904875
20 C Ambient Temp.10094884469
25 C Ambient Temp.10092864164

Table 2-7: Relative Average Percent Lysine in Swine Feeds Compared to Different Ambient Temperatures. 25 C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.758080100100
10 C Ambient Temp.798485100100
15 C Ambient Temp.858989100100
20 C Ambient Temp.929594100100
25 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100

Comments: The same comments can be made for lysine as for protein. Lysine is generally the first limiting amino acid. It is critical to supply adequate amounts of lysine (and other dietary essential amino acids) in order for the pig to grow muscle. Without adequate protein and lysine pigs cannot grow muscle and will use the disposable (after maintenance needs) energy consumed to deposit fat rather than grow muscle. This slows the rate of gain and deteriorates the value of the carcass (by most people's standards).

Note that as the ambient temperature drops the relative percent lysine needed in rations decreases faster than the relative protein needed as can be seen by comparing table 1-7 with table 2-7. I made this comment in Part 1, so here are the data to prove the statement.

Table 3-1: Percent Acid Detergent Fiber in Swine Feeds Fed in
5 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW7.58.38.57.57.5
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW5.06.58.03.93.8
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg4.15.05.03.93.8
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt3.83.83.93.93.8
Ave.Grower +Finishers4.35.15.63.93.8

Table 3-2: Percent Acid Detergent Fiber in Swine Feeds Fed in
10 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW7.58.38.57.57.5
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW5.27.18.93.93.8
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg4.25.25.63.93.8
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt4.04.03.83.93.8
Ave.Grower +Finishers4.55.46.13.93.8

Table 3-3: Percent Acid Detergent Fiber in Swine Feeds Fed in
15 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW7.58.38.57.57.5
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW5.47.69.73.93.8
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg4.35.76.53.93.8
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt4.04.54.63.93.8
Ave.Grower +Finishers4.65.96.93.93.8

Table 3-4: Percent Acid Detergent Fiber in Swine Feeds Fed in
20 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW7.58.48.57.57.5
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW5.68.210.83.93.8
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg4.56.27.23.93.8
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt4.25.05.43.93.8
Ave.Grower +Finishers4.86.57.83.93.8

Table 3-5: Percent Acid Detergent Fiber in Swine Feeds Fed in
25 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW7.68.48.67.57.5
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW5.88.811.93.93.8
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg4.76.78.63.93.8
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt4.35.56.23.93.8
Ave.Grower +Finishers4.97.08.93.93.8

Table 3-6: Relative Average Percent Acid Detergent Fiber in Swine Feeds Compared to Soybean Meal & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.1001191319188
10 C Ambient Temp.1001221378785
15 C Ambient Temp.1001301528583
20 C Ambient Temp.1001361648280
25 C Ambient Temp.1001421807977

Table 3-7: Relative Average Percent Acid Detergent Fiber in Swine Feeds Compared to Different Ambient Temperatures. 25 C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.877363100100
10 C Ambient Temp.917869100100
15 C Ambient Temp.938578100100
20 C Ambient Temp.979288100100
25 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100

Comments: As expected, the percent of acid detergent fiber in the ration increases as (1) sunflower meal with partial hulls and particularly sunflower meal with hulls replace soybean meal as the protein source and as (2) the protein level goes up in rations fed in higher ambient temperatures as these rations need more protein, which of course increases the fiber level if the protein source is higher in fiber than the grain source.

Increasing fiber levels of course reduce the energy level of the ration. Pigs will eat more of a lower energy ration in order to keep their daily caloric intake constant, which is the basis for much of what this manuscript describes. Pigs cannot eat an indefinite amount of fiber so rations so high in fiber that they restrict feed intake, reduce calorie intake. I think all the rations presented in this manuscript are below this critical threshold of fiber.

Table 4-1: Percent Neutral Detergent Fiber in Swine Feeds Fed in
5 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW1718181717
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW1416181313
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg1314141313
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt1313131313
Ave.Grower +Finishers1314151313

Table 4-2: Percent Neutral Detergent Fiber in Swine Feeds Fed in
10 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW1718181717
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW1416191313
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg1314151313
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt1313131313
Ave.Grower +Finishers1314151313

Table 4-3: Percent Neutral Detergent Fiber in Swine Feeds Fed in
15 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW1718181717
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW1417191313
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg1315161313
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt1314141313
Ave.Grower +Finishers1315161313

Table 4-4: Percent Neutral Detergent Fiber in Swine Feeds Fed in
20 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW1718181717
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW1417211313
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg1315171313
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt1314141313
Ave.Grower +Finishers1315171313

Table 4-5: Percent Neutral Detergent Fiber in Swine Feeds Fed in
25 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW1718181717
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW1418221313
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg1316181313
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt1315161313
Ave.Grower +Finishers1316181313

Table 4-6: Relative Average Percent Neutral Detergent Fiber in Swine Feeds Compared to Soybean Meal & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.10010911310098
10 C Ambient Temp.10010911710098
15 C Ambient Temp.10011612310098
20 C Ambient Temp.10011612910098
25 C Ambient Temp.10012414010098

Table 4-7: Relative Average Percent Neutral Detergent Fiber in Swine Feeds Compared to Different Ambient Temperatures. 25 C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.1008881100100
10 C Ambient Temp.1008884100100
15 C Ambient Temp.1009488100100
20 C Ambient Temp.1009492100100
25 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100

Comments: The detergent used to evaluate the level of Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) in a feedstuff is not as strong as the detergent used to determine Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF). NDF includes the hemicellulose of the cell wall, while ADF does not. Both NDF and ADF contain cellulose and lignin. In cattle NDF is the best predictor of dry matter intake. I don't know if such a relationship exists with pigs. If so, maximum intake of rations composed of sunflower meal with hulls as the protein source in rations fed in warmer temperatures (higher in protein if formulated correctly) could be of concern, particularly for young pigs with higher protein needs. Be aware of this physiological phenomenon and evaluate carefully as to whether your pigs are eating enough of rations that are high in neutral detergent fiber, such as those made with sunflower meal with hulls. Reduced feed and calorie intake will reduce average daily gain of course.

Table 5-1: Kcal Metabolizable Energy in Swine Feeds Fed in
5 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW2,9892,9162,9232,9872,987
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW3,1002,9182,8503,1233,064
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg3,1063,0383,0243,1333,076
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt3,0903,0943,1003,1433,093
Ave.Grower +Finishers3,0993,0232,9913,1333,078

Table 5-2: Kcal Metabolizable Energy in Swine Feeds Fed in
10 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW2,9892,9162,9232,9872,987
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW3,1112,9132,8063,1233,064
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg3,1143,0122,9863,1333,076
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt3,0983,0813,0883,1433,093
Ave.Grower +Finishers3,1083,0022,9603,1333,078

Table 5-3: Kcal Metabolizable Energy in Swine Feeds Fed in
15 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW2,9892,9162,9232,9872,987
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW3,1232,8872,7643,1233,064
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg3,1242,9912,9413,1333,076
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt3,1033,0593,0523,1433,093
Ave.Grower +Finishers3,1172,8792,9193,1333,078

Table 5-4: Kcal Metabolizable Energy in Swine Feeds Fed in
20 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW2,9892,9132,9232,9872,987
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW3,1352,8572,7083,1233,064
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg3,1312,9672,8993,1333,076
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt3,1133,0233,0083,1433,093
Ave.Grower +Finishers3,1262,9522,8723,1333,078

Table 5-5: Kcal Metabolizable Energy in Swine Feeds Fed in
25 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Starter - < 20 Kg BW2,9682,9162,9182,9872,987
Grower 20 to 50 Kg BW3,1462,8262,6483,1233,064
Finisher #1, 50 to 80 Kg3,1432,9402,8353,1333,076
Finisher #2, 80 kg - Mkt3,1183,0102,9633,1433,093
Ave.Grower +Finishers3,1362,9252,8153,1333,078

Table 5-6: Average Kcal Metabolizable Energy in Swine Grower & Finisher Feeds Fed in Various C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.3,0993,0232,9913,1333,078
10 C Ambient Temp.3,1083,0022,9603,1333,078
15 C Ambient Temp.3,1172,9792,9193,1333,078
20 C Ambient Temp.3,1262,9522,8723,1333,078
25 C Ambient Temp.3,1362,9252,8153,1333,078

Table 5-7: Relative Average Kcal Metabolizable Energy in Swine Grower & Finisher Feeds Fed in Various C. SBM & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.100989710199
10 C Ambient Temp.100979510199
15 C Ambient Temp.100969410199
20 C Ambient Temp.100949210098
25 C Ambient Temp.100939010098

Table 5-8: Relative Average Kcal Metabolizable Energy in Swine Grower & Finisher Feeds Fed in Various C. 25 C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.99103106100100
10 C Ambient Temp.99103105100100
15 C Ambient Temp.99102104100100
20 C Ambient Temp.100101102100100
25 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100

Comments: The Kcal of metabolizable energy in the ration goes down as lower energy protein sources are used; in this case sunflower meal with partial hulls (2500 Kcal Metabolizable energy/kg) and sunflower meal with hulls (2000 kcal Metabolizable energy/kg). The wheat ration without protein supplements (WVMX) and the wheat ration with lysine (WVML) are similar in energy to rations made from expeller soybean meal (3500 Kcal Metabolizable energy/kg) and wheat (3210 Kcal Metabolizable energy/kg) as the WVMX and WVML rations are predominately wheat.

The energy level of the soybean meal and wheat rations were similar for all temperatures as changing wheat and soybean in the ration made little difference in the ration energy density. With the sunflower meal rations the energy density goes down as the rations are formulated for the higher protein levels needed in higher temperatures.

Table 6-1: Kcal Metabolizable Energy Intake per Day per Pig of Given Weight & Given C Ambient Temperature

Ambient Temperature5 C10 C15 C20 C25 C
15 kg Body Weight   2,375 
20 Kg Body Weight5,7115,3555,0004,6454,290
50 Kg Body Weight9,5798,9698,3597,7507,140
80 Kg Body Weight11,64010,88110,1229,3638,604
110 Kg Body Weight12,8591,200011,14110,2829,423
120 Kg Body Weight13,23112,34011,44910,5589,666

Comment: For a given temperature, pigs of the same body weight will adjust their feed intake so that they consume similar amounts of energy per day.

Table 6-2: Relative Kcal Metabolizable Energy Intake per Day per Pig Compared to 25 C Ambient Temperature

Ambient Temperature5 C10 C15 C20 C25 C
20 Kg Body Weight133125117108100
50 Kg Body Weight134126117109100
80 Kg Body Weight135126118109100
110 Kg Body Weight136127118109100
120 Kg Body Weight137128118109100

Comment: Pigs consume 1.65% more calories for each degree centigrade below the ideal temperature. This amounts to 33 percent more caloric intake for 20 Kg pigs experiencing 5 C as opposed to pigs experiencing 25 C and increases as shown in Table 6-2 up to 37% for 120 kg pigs. The ideal temperature decreases as the pig grows. The formula to determine the ideal ambient temperature for swine is 26 C- (0.0614 x BW).

Table 6-3: No Body Weight vs. Ambient C Relationship for Kcal Metabolizable Energy Intake for Pigs of the Same Body Weight
When Compared to 120 Kg Body Weight. 120 Kg BW = 100

Ambient Temperature5 C10 C15 C20 C25 C
20 Kg Body Weight4343444444
50 Kg Body Weight7273737374
80 Kg Body Weight8888888989
110 Kg Body Weight9797979797
120 Kg Body Weight100100100100100

Table 7-1: Kg Total Feed Consumed by Pig Growing 105 Kg
from 15 to 120 Kg BW

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.330336346418355
10 C Ambient Temp.307316327399341
15 C Ambient Temp.286297308381327
20 C Ambient Temp.264278291361315
25 C Ambient Temp.251267282355309

Table 7-2: Relative Total Feed Consumed by Pig Growing 105 Kg from 15 to 120 Kg BW Compared to SBM & Wheat =100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.100102105127108
10 C Ambient Temp.100103106130111
15 C Ambient Temp.100104108133114
20 C Ambient Temp.100105110137119
25 C Ambient Temp.100106112141123

Comments: Tables 7-1 & 7-2 show that it takes more feed for a pig to reach market weight as the ration decreases in energy, assuming adequate protein so the days on feed is fairly similar. Look at the wheat rations without protein supplements. Even though the energy level of these rations is similar to soybean meal and wheat rations, the deficiency of protein in the ration reduces the pig's ability to grow muscle so available dietary energy is converted to fat rather than to support muscle growth, which results in much slower gain (fat tissue is a lot more calorie dense than muscle) and therefore a longer maintenance period and thus more feed is needed to get the pig to market weight when compared to rations adequate in protein, such as the three rations shown on the left. Adding lysine to wheat rations supports a big improvement in weight gain and feed efficiency. Pigs MUST have adequate protein for muscle growth. There is no substitute!

Table 7-3: Relative Total Feed Consumed by Pig Growing 105 Kg from 15 to 120 Kg BW Compared to 25 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.131126123118115
10 C Ambient Temp.122118116113110
15 C Ambient Temp.114111109107106
20 C Ambient Temp.105104103102102
25 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100

Comments: Table 7-3 shows that pigs eat more feed in cold weather because they need to increase their caloric intake in order to keep warm. The reason that there is not as big an increase in intake for the sunflower meal rations in comparison to the soybean rations is that as the ambient temperature goes down, the percent protein level in the ration can be decreased. Since this replaces low energy sunflower meal with high energy wheat, the ration energy density increases and thus the pig needs to eat less feed to consume the same number of calories. A similar relationship does not exist for soybean meal and wheat rations as expeller soybean meal is actually a little higher in energy than wheat.

You can make another interesting observation if you look at the data for feed consumed from 15 Kg to market for pigs on wheat without protein supplement when compared on the basis of ambient temperature (not in comparison to soybean meal and wheat rations as is done with Table 7-2). As the ambient temperature goes down, the pig eats more and removes a bigger percentage of the ration energy to keep warm, thus leaving a higher amount of protein for muscle development. Since muscle development takes less energy than fat tissue deposition the relative amount of feed needed to get the pig fed a protein deficient ration to market is reduced in comparison to pigs fed rations adequate in protein. The protein deficient ration becomes less deficient as ambient temperature decreases and the pig puts on muscle and gains weight more efficiently while producing a better carcass.

Table 8-1: Average Daily Feed Intake per Pig, Grams

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.2,6522,7052,7302,5862,615
10 C Ambient Temp.2,4792,5532,5832,4272,452
15 C Ambient Temp.2,3082,4002,4442,2702,291
20 C Ambient Temp.2,1382,2492,3062,1102,132
25 C Ambient Temp.1,9872,1122,1861,9741,992

Table 8-2: Relative Average Daily Feed Intake per Pig Compared to SBM & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.1001021039899
10 C Ambient Temp.1001031049899
15 C Ambient Temp.1001041069899
20 C Ambient Temp.10010510899100
25 C Ambient Temp.10010611099100

Table 8-3: Relative Average Daily Feed Intake per Pig Compared to
25 C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.133128125131131
10 C Ambient Temp.125121118123123
15 C Ambient Temp.116114112115115
20 C Ambient Temp.108106105107107
25 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100

Comments: The above tables (Table 8 series) are on a daily basis rather than on a pig to market basis (Table 7 series). Feed intake is determined by dividing the caloric density of the ration into the Kcal of energy the pig will consume per day. These data show again that pigs increase their daily feed intake as the ration energy goes down and as the temperature drops below the ideal temperature.

The following tables in Series # 9 show feed prices. These of course are only approximate and change with market conditions. I show them so you'll know the basis on which income, profit, return on investment and other economic data were calculated and to allow the showing of important relationships. You can adjust these figures to your actual feed costs and approximate what effect this has on your economic data.

Table 9-1: Feed Price per Kg (Grivnia)
Formulated for 10 to 20 Kg Pigs, Starter

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.1.0841.0471.0581.0841.084
10 C Ambient Temp.1.0841.0471.0581.0841.084
15 C Ambient Temp.1.0841.0471.0581.0841.084
20 C Ambient Temp.1.0841.0471.0581.0841.084
25 C Ambient Temp.1.0841.0471.0581.0841.084

Table 9-2: Feed Price per Kg (Grivnia)
Formulated for 20 to 50 Kg Pigs, Grower

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.0.8920.8040.7690.6940.749
10 C Ambient Temp.0.9150.8140.7730.6940.749
15 C Ambient Temp.0.9480.8260.7790.6940.749
20 C Ambient Temp.0.9930.8390.7820.6940.749
25 C Ambient Temp.1.0340.8530.7910.6940.749

Table 9-3: Feed Price per Kg (Grivnia)
Formulated for 50 to 80 Kg Finisher # 1

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.0.7780.7600.7520.6920.739
10 C Ambient Temp.0.8040.7720.7550.6920.739
15 C Ambient Temp.0.8310.7800.7570.6920.739
20 C Ambient Temp.0.8600.7910.7630.6920.739
25 C Ambient Temp.0.8890.8040.7650.6920.739

Table 9-4: Feed Price per Kg (Grivnia)
Formulated for 80 Kg Pigs to Market, Finisher # 2

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.0.7300.7320.7290.8680.727
10 C Ambient Temp.0.7580.7390.7380.8680.727
15 C Ambient Temp.0.7640.7490.7390.8680.727
20 C Ambient Temp.0.7900.7620.7450.6860.727
25 C Ambient Temp.0.8220.7750.7500.6860.727

Table 9-5: Average Feed Price of Swine Grower & Finisher Rations Grivnia/Kg
Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.0.8000.7650.7490.6910.738
10 C Ambient Temp.0.8260.7750.7550.6910.738
15 C Ambient Temp.0.8480.7850.7580.6910.738
20 C Ambient Temp.0.8810.7970.7630.6910.738
25 C Ambient Temp.0.9180.8110.7690.6910.738

Table 9-6: Relative Average Feed Price of Swine Grower & Finisher Rations. SBM & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.10096948692
10 C Ambient Temp.10094918489
15 C Ambient Temp.10093898187
20 C Ambient Temp.10091877884
25 C Ambient Temp.10088847580

Table 9-7: Relative Average Feed Price of Swine Grower & Finishers Compared to 25 C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.879498100100
10 C Ambient Temp.909698100100
15 C Ambient Temp.929799100100
20 C Ambient Temp.969899100100
25 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100

Comments: The above feed price tables show the obvious that feeds made with cheaper ingredients cost less. Whether this is economical or not depends on pig performance in relation to feed costs, which we'll investigate in detail soon. It is very important economically to adjust the ration formulations (mainly protein and lysine) to account for the energy density of the feedstuffs in order to allow them to support the most economical gain possible.

Table 10-1: Cost of Feed to Raise Pig to Market Weight, Grivnia
105 Kg Gain from 15 to 120 Kg Body Weight

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.262258261293265
10 C Ambient Temp.252246249279255
15 C Ambient Temp.240234236267244
20 C Ambient Temp.230222224253235
25 C Ambient Temp.227217219249231

Table 10-2: Relative Cost of Feed to Raise Pig to Market Weight Compared to SBM & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.10099100112101
10 C Ambient Temp.1009899111101
15 C Ambient Temp.1009898111102
20 C Ambient Temp.1009797110102
25 C Ambient Temp.1009696109102

Table 10-3: Relative Cost of Feed to Raise Pig to Market Weight Compared to 25 C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.115119119118114
10 C Ambient Temp.111113114112110
15 C Ambient Temp.105108108107106
20 C Ambient Temp.101102102102102
25 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100

Comments: The cost of feed to raise a pig to market is a much more important measurement than the cost of feed/kilogram of feed. Feed cost by itself means little as can be seen by studying the poor economic performance of pigs fed only wheat, a really cheap ration. By adjusting ration formulations to match the nutrient requirements of pigs of each weight raised in various ambient temperatures, the cost of feed needed to raise a pig to market can be reduced as compared to feeding one ration in all C.

Table 11-1: Non-Feed Cost to Raise Pig to Market Weight, Grivnia
Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.9999101129108
10 C Ambient Temp.9999101131111
15 C Ambient Temp.9999101134114
20 C Ambient Temp.9898101136118
25 C Ambient Temp.101101101143124

Table 11-2: Relative Non-Feed Cost to Raise Pig to Market Weight Compared to SBM & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.100100102130109
10 C Ambient Temp.100100102133112
15 C Ambient Temp.100100102136115
20 C Ambient Temp.100100102138119
25 C Ambient Temp.100100102142123

Table 11-3: Relative Non-Feed Cost to Raise Pig to Market Weight
Compared to 20 C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.1011011019592
10 C Ambient Temp.1001001009694
15 C Ambient Temp.1001001009897
20 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100
25 C Ambient Temp.102102102105105

Comments: Non-Feed costs are based on the cost per day to keep a pig so if it takes longer for a pig to reach market, the non-feed costs go up. This is particularly true of pigs fed rations that are inadequate in protein as it takes longer for the pig to reach market weight as fat deposition takes a lot more calories than muscle growth. The pig is further handicapped if vitamins and minerals are not fed. If it is fed on grain alone without even added vitamins and minerals it will be around so long you'll think it is a member of the family. These series of tables show you the performance and economic consequences of feeding rations that are not adequate in nutrients to support maximum muscle growth.

Table 12-1: Total Cost (Investment) to Raise Pig to Market, Grivnia
Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.511507512572523
10 C Ambient Temp.501495500560515
15 C Ambient Temp.488482487550508
20 C Ambient Temp.478471475539503
25 C Ambient Temp.478468472542505

Table 12-2: Relative Total Cost to Raise Pig to Market Weight Compared to SBM & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.10099100112102
10 C Ambient Temp.10099100112103
15 C Ambient Temp.10099100113104
20 C Ambient Temp.1009999113105
25 C Ambient Temp.1009999113106

Comments: Sunflower meal with partial hulls and sunflower meal with hulls are competitive with soybean meal as a protein source under today's economics. Adding lysine to wheat improves the ration but the feed costs to raise a pig to market are still less when conventional protein supplements are included in the diet.

Table 12-3: Relative Total Cost to Raise Pig to Market Weight Compared to 25 C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.107108109105104
10 C Ambient Temp.105106106103102
15 C Ambient Temp.102103103102101
20 C Ambient Temp.100101101100100
25 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100

Comments: It costs more to raise a pig to market as the ambient temperature drops below the ideal temperature. Warm temperatures up to 25 or 30 C don't handicap a pig very much when economics are considered as we'll see later on in this manuscript. Ventilation helps however as it removes bothersome ammonia and other air pollutants.

Table 13-1: Average Daily Gain, Grams

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.845845828649773
10 C Ambient Temp.847847829638756
15 C Ambient Temp.849849832626737
20 C Ambient Temp.850850833614712
25 C Ambient Temp.830830813584675

Table 13-2: Relative Average Daily Gain
Compared to SBM & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.100100987791
10 C Ambient Temp.100100987589
15 C Ambient Temp.100100987487
20 C Ambient Temp.100100987284
25 C Ambient Temp.100100987081

Comments: The 98% average daily gain shown for pigs fed sunflower meal with hulls in relation to soybean meal is because I used 310 grams a day of muscle gain versus 325 grams because the protein quality of sunflower is poor and with the extra fiber from the woody hulls I didn't think it was realistic to work this problem with equal gain in muscle of pigs fed sunflower meal with hulls versus those fed soybean meal. To the extent that any of these rations support muscle growth different than assumed, the data will not be accurate. I'll be interested in your observations.

Wheat without protein supplementation supports poorer gain than supplemented rations for reason discussed above. Adding lysine helps. Balance swine rations for protein to achieve maximum profitability. Don't be a cheapskate and hurt your standard of living.

Table 13-3: Relative Average Daily Gain
Compared to 20 C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.999999106109
10 C Ambient Temp.100100100104106
15 C Ambient Temp.100100100102104
20 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100
25 C Ambient Temp.9898989595

Comments: Cold weather does not handicap the average daily gain of pigs if the protein level is adequate for all temperatures compared. The pig just eats more feed to supply enough energy for growth and keeping warm.

Cold weather actually improves the average daily gain of pigs fed protein deficient rations as more of the energy of the ration is used to keep warm, leaving more protein from the increased consumption of the ration available for muscle growth as discussed earlier. Temperatures above the ideal ambient temperature decrease average daily gain because the pig reduces feed intake. This isn't all bad as we'll see in the next table.

Table 14-1: Feed to Gain Ratio

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.3.143.203.303.983.38
10 C Ambient Temp.2.933.013.113.803.24
15 C Ambient Temp.2.722.832.943.633.11
20 C Ambient Temp.2.522.652.773.443.00
25 C Ambient Temp.2.392.552.693.382.94

Comments: Notice that feed efficiency (units of feed per unit of gain) decreases as the ambient temperature drops below the ideal temperature because the pig eats more feed to keep warm. Pigs living in 25 C actually are more efficient than at 20 C because they decrease feed intake but don't drop their average daily gain by a like amount because more of the weight gain is protein tissue deposition rather than fat tissue as we'll see soon. Muscle growth takes fewer calories than an equal weight of fat tissue deposition.

Table 14-2: Relative Feed to Gain Ratio
Compared to SBM & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.100102105127108
10 C Ambient Temp.100103106130111
15 C Ambient Temp.100104108133114
20 C Ambient Temp.100105110137119
25 C Ambient Temp.100106112141123

Comments: Higher energy feeds are more efficient than lower energy feeds as would be expected as the pig eats to a similar calorie intake for a given weight. Pigs without adequate protein are not efficient in gaining weight as a higher percentage of the gain is fat tissue compared to muscle. Notice the big improvement in feed efficiency when lysine is added to wheat rations as the pig can grow more muscle and deposit less fat.

Table 14-3: Relative Feed to Gain Ratio
Compared to 25C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.131126123118115
10 C Ambient Temp.122118116113110
15 C Ambient Temp.114111109107106
20 C Ambient Temp.105104103102102
25 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100

Comments: Feed efficiency declines as ambient temperature declines below the ideal temperature. This drop in efficiency isn't so great for pigs fed protein deficient rations for reasons discussed above.

Table 14-4: Feed to Gain Ratio Changes at Different Body Weights of Pigs fed in 20 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
15 kg Body Weight1.982.032.031.981.98
20 Kg Body Weight2.152.362.563.442.97
50 Kg Body Weight2.502.632.763.493.02
80 Kg Body Weight2.782.862.943.563.09
110 Kg Body Weight3.143.223.313.673.21
120 Kg Body Weight3.283.373.453.743.30

Comments: This table shows the decrease in feed efficiency as the pig gains weight. Feed efficiency declines with weight gain because the pig has more body to maintain and because a higher percentage of the weight gain is from fat tissue in relation to muscle, as we'll see later. Since it takes more calories to put on an equal amount of fat tissue than protein tissue and the pig consumes the same amount of calories it is logical for the rate of gain and feed efficiency to decline. Notice the lousy feed efficiency of pigs over 20 Kg body weight fed inadequate protein. Remember that pigs below 20 Kg of body weight consumed similar starter rations adequate in all nutrients so the performance for all 20 Kg pigs shown is similar.

The drop in feed efficiency (more feed per unit of gain) is rather profound for pigs over 120 Kg body weight that have more body weight to maintain and are depositing an ever increasing amount of fat tissue in relation to protein tissue. There is a weight at which the pig should be sold as you can't afford to feed it because of the poor feed efficiency and because the clock is running on non-feed costs which accumulate on a daily basis. Generally pigs should be sold when then reach much over 120 Kg of body weight. Use these data to help you make good management decisions aimed at maximizing your profitability, which should be measured on your return on investment per year as we'll discuss later.

Table 15-1: Days on Feed to Gain 105 Kg (from 15 to 120 Kg)

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.124124127162136
10 C Ambient Temp.124124127164139
15 C Ambient Temp.124124126168142
20 C Ambient Temp.124124126171148
25 C Ambient Temp.127127129180155

Table 15-2: Relative Days on Feed to Gain 105 Kg
Compared to SBM & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.100100102130109
10 C Ambient Temp.100100102133112
15 C Ambient Temp.100100102136115
20 C Ambient Temp.100100102138119
25 C Ambient Temp.100100102142123

Comments: The number of days on feed it takes for a pig to get to market affects economic parameters. Notice the big increase in number of days to market when the ration is deficient in protein. Adding lysine to wheat diets reduces the days on feed significantly but doesn't get pigs to market as fast as when adequate protein is fed.

Table 15-3: Relative Days on Feed to Gain 105 Kg
Compared to 20C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.1011011019592
10 C Ambient Temp.1001001009694
15 C Ambient Temp.1001001009897
20 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100
25 C Ambient Temp.102102102105105

Comments: Colder temperatures do not increase the days on feed for pigs fed rations adequate in protein as they eat more feed and keep gaining muscle. Cold weather gives a relative advantage to pigs fed rations deficient in protein for reasons explained earlier. Ambient temperatures above the ideal temperature increase the days on feed, particularly for pigs fed inadequate protein.

You've seen the following tables before but I want you to make some comparisons.

Table 7-2: Relative Total Feed Consumed by Pig Growing 105 Kg from 15 to 120 Kg BW Compared to SBM & Wheat =100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.100102105127108
10 C Ambient Temp.100103106130111
15 C Ambient Temp.100104108133114
20 C Ambient Temp.100105110137119
25 C Ambient Temp.100106112141123

Table 10-2: Relative Cost of Feed to Raise Pigs to Market Weight Compared to SBM & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.10099100112101
10 C Ambient Temp.1009899111101
15 C Ambient Temp.1009898111102
20 C Ambient Temp.1009797110102
25 C Ambient Temp.1009696109102

Comments: Notice that even though the pig may eat more feed, if it is less expensive than other options, feed costs may go down. Nothing profound in that statement but here are the figures to back up the statement that rations balanced with sunflower meal may be as economical in producing pork as rations made from soybean meal using cost data supplied. Supplementing wheat with lysine makes it pretty competitive when feed costs are compared without putting in a penalty for taking longer for a pig to get to market.

Table 7-3: Relative Total Feed Consumed by Pigs Growing 105 Kg from 15 to 120 Kg BW Compared to 25 C Ambient Temperature

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.131126123118115
10 C Ambient Temp.122118116113110
15 C Ambient Temp.114111109107106
20 C Ambient Temp.105104103102102
25 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100

Table 10-3: Relative Cost of Feed to Raise Pig to Market Weight Compared to 25 C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.115119119118115
10 C Ambient Temp.111113114112110
15 C Ambient Temp.105108108107106
20 C Ambient Temp.101102102102102
25 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100

Comments: The above two tables (7-3 & 10-3) show the economic advantage of formulating swine rations to match the hog's nutrient needs in various ambient temperatures. Pigs fed soybean rations will eat 31% more feed at 5 C than at 25 C but feed costs can be kept at an increase of 15% if the protein is reduced as the ambient temperature declines. With sunflower meal rations pigs increase their feed intake by 26% when ambient temperatures drop from 25 C to 5 C. This is less than for soybean meal rations because as ambient temperature goes down, low energy sunflower meal is replaced with high energy wheat so the pig eats less feed to meet its caloric needs.

As the ambient temperature drops the cost of feed to get a pig to market goes up more for sunflower meal rations than for soybean meal because the relative price of sunflower meal to wheat is very close and there isn't a big economic benefit from the replacement of sunflower meal with wheat but with soybean meal, replacing it with wheat is a big economic advantage because of the large price differential.

The point of this whole long manuscript is that rations should be adjusted to match (1) the genetic potential of the pig to grow muscle, (2) the energy density of the ration and the (3) ambient temperature (ability of the pig to consume calories).

There is a big economic benefit to formulating swine rations with these relationships in mind. Studying this manuscript will help you make the good management decisions. Keeping your swine rations adjusted to actual conditions will make you money.

Table 16-1: Protein Tissue as Percent of Tissue Gain from 15 to 120 Kg Body Weight

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.6363624558
10 C Ambient Temp.6363614356
15 C Ambient Temp.6363614054
20 C Ambient Temp.6363613851
25 C Ambient Temp.6464633851

Table 16-2: Relative Percent of Protein Tissue Gain from 15 to 120 Kg Body Weight Where SBM & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.100100987192
10 C Ambient Temp.100100986890
15 C Ambient Temp.100100986486
20 C Ambient Temp.100100986182
25 C Ambient Temp.100100985979

Table 16-3: Relative Percent of Protein Tissue Gain from 15 to 120 Kg Body Weight Where 25 C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.989898116115
10 C Ambient Temp.989898113111
15 C Ambient Temp.979797107106
20 C Ambient Temp.979797101101
25 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100

Comments: Notice that the percentage of tissue gain that is muscle isn't affected very much by temperature if the rations are adequate in protein while pigs fed rations deficient in protein deposit a carcass with more muscle in cold weather than in warm weather for reasons we've already discussed. Notice that pigs fed rations deficient in protein put on a lot more fat than pigs fed adequate protein. The gain in weight of pigs fed adequate protein is about 63% muscle while the protein tissue gain of pigs fed rations of wheat without added protein is only 38 percent of the gain. Adding lysine improves carcass quality for the tissue gain is 50 percent muscle. This still isn't good enough but an improvement over feeding wheat alone.

Table 16-4: Protein Tissue as Percent of Tissue Gain by Body Weight
(Fat % is Reciprocal)

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
15 Kg Body Weight8080808080
20 Kg Body Weight7070683650
50 Kg Body Weight6262613650
80 Kg Body Weight5756553650
110 Kg Body Weight5151503750
120 Kg Body Weight4949483849

Comments: As the pig gains weight, the percentage of gain that is muscle decreases and the percentage of gain from fat increases. It is usually most economical to sell a pig when it begins to "finish". Putting on weight gain as fat is more expensive than from muscle. Sell fat hogs and start again with young pigs to improve your profitability and the number of pigs (and kilograms of pork) you can put through your facilities in a year. Feeding pigs to heavy weights much over 120 Kg is probably not a good economic decision.

Table 17-1: Fat Tissue as Percent of Tissue Gain from 15 to 120 Kg BW

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.3737385542
10 C Ambient Temp.3737395744
15 C Ambient Temp.3737396046
20 C Ambient Temp.3737396249
25 C Ambient Temp.3636376249

Table 17-2: Relative Percent of Fat Tissue Gain from 15 to 120 Kg Body Weight Where SBM & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.100100104150113
10 C Ambient Temp.100100104155118
15 C Ambient Temp.100100104160123
20 C Ambient Temp.100100104165131
25 C Ambient Temp.100100104175138

Table 17-3: Relative Percent of Fat Tissue Gain from 15 to 120 Kg Body Weight Where 25 C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.1041041048985
10 C Ambient Temp.1041041049289
15 C Ambient Temp.1051051049693
20 C Ambient Temp.1051051059999
25 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100

Table 17-4: Fat Tissue as Percent of Tissue Gain by Body Weight
(Protein % is Reciprocal)

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
15 Kg Body Weight2020208080
20 Kg Body Weight3030326450
50 Kg Body Weight3838396450
80 Kg Body Weight4344456450
110 Kg Body Weight4949506350
120 Kg Body Weight5151526251

Comments: The data on fat presented in Table 17 are the reciprocal of the figures for protein presented in Table 16. Pigs need adequate protein and lysine in their diet to grow muscle. If the protein intake is inadequate the pig converts calories to fat and you get a fat pig with a reduced amount of lean meat. In Western markets hogs with more fat earn less in the market place than meat type hogs. Since hogs that are overly fat usually cost more to produce, this is a double whammy on your profits. Formulate and feed so that the pig consumes adequate protein if you want to maximize your profit from raising pigs.

Table 18-1: Income Data per Pig - Assumed to be the Same for all C & Rations unless the Market Pays a Premium for Muscle vs. Fat Tissue

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
Sale Price Grivnia/Kg6.006.006.006.006.00
Market Weight, Kg120120120120120
Income per Pig, Grivnia720720720720720

Table 19-1: Income Over Cost of Feed + Weaner Pig per Pig, Grivnia

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.308312309277305
10 C Ambient Temp.318324321291315
15 C Ambient Temp.330336334303326
20 C Ambient Temp.340348346317335
25 C Ambient Temp.343353351321339

Table 19-2: Relative Income Over Cost of Feed of Pig + Weaner Pig/Pig. SBM & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.1001011009099
10 C Ambient Temp.1001021019199
15 C Ambient Temp.1001021019299
20 C Ambient Temp.1001021029398
25 C Ambient Temp.1001031029499

Comments: When compared on a per pig basis, under the assumed market conditions of today pigs fed sunflower meal with or without hulls earn more income than pigs fed soybean meal. Wheat plus lysine does well also, but beware of the greater number of days on feed which increases non-feed costs per market hog as we'll see later.

Table 19-3: Relative Income Over Cost of Feed of Pig + Weaner Pig per Pig, 25 C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.9088888690
10 C Ambient Temp.9392919093
15 C Ambient Temp.9695959496
20 C Ambient Temp.9999999999
25 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100

Comments: Pigs raised in 20 to 25 C ambient temperature return more income over feed costs (plus the initial cost of the weaner pig) per pig than pigs raised in colder temperatures. Fly south with your swine operation during the winter and enjoy yourself!

Table 20-1: Income Over Cost of Feed + Weaner Pig per Kg Gain
(Ratios the same as per pig above)

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.2.942.972.942.642.90
10 C Ambient Temp.3.033.093.062.773.00
15 C Ambient Temp.3.153.203.182.893.10
20 C Ambient Temp.3.243.313.293.023.19
25 C Ambient Temp.3.263.363.343.063.23

Table 21-1: Income Over Cost of Feed of Pig + Weaner Pig per Day, Grivnia

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.2.482.512.431.712.24
10 C Ambient Temp.2.572.622.531.772.27
15 C Ambient Temp.2.672.722.651.812.29
20 C Ambient Temp.2.752.812.741.852.27
25 C Ambient Temp.2.712.792.721.792.19

Table 21-2: Relative Income Over Feed Cost of Pig + Weaner Pig/Day. SBM & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.100101986990
10 C Ambient Temp.100102996988
15 C Ambient Temp.100102996886
20 C Ambient Temp.1001021006782
25 C Ambient Temp.1001031006681

Table 21-3: Relative Income Over Feed Cost of Pig + Weaner Pig per Day, 20 C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.9089899399
10 C Ambient Temp.93939295100
15 C Ambient Temp.97979698101
20 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100
25 C Ambient Temp.9899999796

Comments: The numbers and relationships change some when income over feed costs (plus cost of weaner pig) is calculated on a per day basis rather than on a per pig basis as time is money and if it takes longer for a pig to get to market the non-feed costs that accumulate on a daily basis may eat your lunch.

Choosing how to maximize income earned on various feeding protocols should be based on return per day and not on return per pig.

Table 22-1: Net Income per Pig, Grivnia

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.209213208148197
10 C Ambient Temp.219225220160205
15 C Ambient Temp.232238233170212
20 C Ambient Temp.242249245181217
25 C Ambient Temp.242252248178215

Table 22-2: Relative Net Income per Pig
SBM & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.100102997194
10 C Ambient Temp.1001031007393
15 C Ambient Temp.1001021017392
20 C Ambient Temp.1001031027590
25 C Ambient Temp.1001041037489

Table 22-3: Relative Net Income per Pig
25C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.8785848391
10 C Ambient Temp.9189898995
15 C Ambient Temp.9694949599
20 C Ambient Temp.1009999101101
25 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100

Table 23-1: Net Profit per Kg of Gain, Grivnia
(Ratios the same as per pig above)

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.1.992.031.981.411.87
10 C Ambient Temp.2.092.152.091.521.95
15 C Ambient Temp.2.212.262.221.622.02
20 C Ambient Temp.2.302.372.341.722.07
25 C Ambient Temp.2.302.402.361.702.05

Comments: Study the above tables (23 series) and draw your own conclusions. I'm tired!

Sunflower meal with partial hulls looks like a good choice for supplemental protein under today's market conditions. Feeding wheat or wheat with lysine is not your most economical choice. Beware of comparisons made on a per pig basis as you're really interested in you net income per day as shown in the following series of tables.

Table 24-1: Net Income per Day, Grivnia

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.1.681.711.640.921.45
10 C Ambient Temp.1.771.821.740.971.47
15 C Ambient Temp.1.871.921.851.011.49
20 C Ambient Temp.1.952.021.951.061.47
25 C Ambient Temp.1.911.991.920.991.39

Table 24-2: Relative Net Income per Day. SBM & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.100102975486
10 C Ambient Temp.100103985583
15 C Ambient Temp.100102995480
20 C Ambient Temp.1001031005475
25 C Ambient Temp.1001041005273

Comments: The data on net income per day from feeding pigs shows that feeding sunflower meal with partial hulls to pigs of 20 kilograms body weight is your best feed buy as long as the rations are balanced in protein. Sunflower meal with hulls is economically competitive. Feeding wheat with only vitamins and minerals added is about half as profitable as when proteins are added. Adding lysine improves the situation to about the 75% level. Not feeding supplemental protein is a costly economic decision.

Table 24-3: Relative Net Income per Day. 20C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.8685848798
10 C Ambient Temp.91908992100
15 C Ambient Temp.96959596101
20 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100
25 C Ambient Temp.9899999494

Comments: Relative net income per day is maximized at 20 C ambient temperature but if the protein level of the ration is adequate, there isn't much harm when ambient temperatures increase to 25 C. Beware of hot temperatures unless the ration protein level is raised to meet the pig's protein needs as pigs eat less feed in warm weather.

Table 25-1: Return on Investment - ROI - per Pig, Grivnia

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.4142412638
10 C Ambient Temp.4446442840
15 C Ambient Temp.4749483142
20 C Ambient Temp.5053523343
25 C Ambient Temp.5154533343

Table 25-2: Relative Return on Investment per Pig
SBM & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.100102996392
10 C Ambient Temp.1001041006591
15 C Ambient Temp.1001041016588
20 C Ambient Temp.1001051026686
25 C Ambient Temp.1001061036583

Table 25-3: Relative Return on Investment per Pig
25 C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.8178777988
10 C Ambient Temp.8785848793
15 C Ambient Temp.9492919498
20 C Ambient Temp.1009898102101
25 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100

Table 26-1: Percent Return on Investment - ROI - per Year.
The True Measure of ROI

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.12012311789101
10 C Ambient Temp.12913412763104
15 C Ambient Temp.14014513967107
20 C Ambient Temp.14915615071107
25 C Ambient Temp.14615514867100

Comments: With the cost and income figures used, there is money to be made raising pigs in Western Ukraine if the pigs have the genetic potential as assumed and if the rations are balanced for each feedstuff used and for the ambient temperature.

Table 26-2: Relative Return on Investment per Year
SBM & Wheat = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.100102974984
10 C Ambient Temp.100104984981
15 C Ambient Temp.100104994876
20 C Ambient Temp.1001051004872
25 C Ambient Temp.1001061014667

Comments: Under the economic conditions used in this study, if the rations are balanced to the situation, sunflower meal with hulls equals soybean meal as a protein source for pigs in moderate to warm temperatures. Sunflower meal with partial hulls is your protein of choice at the prices compared. Feeding wheat without protein supplements has an ROI half that of soybean meal. Adding lysine raises the ROI to only about 70% that of SBM. The greatest return on investment comes if the protein levels of the ration are adequate. Under today's economics, cheating on protein to reduce feed costs also reduces net income and ROI. Manage for profit by feeding rations balanced to the needs of the pig.

Table 26-3: Relative Return on Investment per Year
20 C = 100

Feed IdentificationSBMSFMH/2SFMHWVMXWVML
Gain of Muscle/Day, Kg325325310Max allowed by % lysine
5 C Ambient Temp.8179788294
10 C Ambient Temp.8786858898
15 C Ambient Temp.94939394100
20 C Ambient Temp.100100100100100
25 C Ambient Temp.9899999494

Comments: The greatest return on investment occurs when pigs are fed in their ideal ambient temperature, which is about 20 C when calculated for the entire growth period.

Roy E. Chapin, Ph.D. Animal Nutritionist
Cooperative Development Program
USAID, ACDI/VOCA and Southern States Cooperative

11145 Chapin Lane, Amity, Oregon 97101 USA
Home Phone: 503-835-7317/Fax: 503-835-333. E-mail: <roychapin@onlinemac.com>

 
© Roy Chapin, 2018
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